Gilbert Newton Lewis ForMemRS  October 25 or 23 — March 23,   was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs ; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Lewis successfully contributed to thermodynamicsphotochemistryand isotope separationand is also known for his concept of acids and bases. Lewis was born in in Weymouth, Massachusetts. After receiving his PhD in chemistry from Harvard University and studying abroad in Germany and the PhilippinesLewis moved to California to teach chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. Several years later, he became the Dean of the college of Chemistry at Berkeley, where he spent the rest of his life.
As a professor, he incorporated thermodynamic principles into the chemistry curriculum and reformed chemical thermodynamics in a mathematically rigorous manner accessible to ordinary chemists. He began measuring the free energy values related to several chemical processes, both organic and inorganic. Inhe also proposed his theory of bonding and added information about electrons in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Inhe started his research on isotope separation. Lewis worked with hydrogen and managed to purify a sample of heavy water. He then came up with his theory of acids and bases, and did work in photochemistry during the last years of his life.
InLewis coined the term " photon " for the smallest unit of radiant energy. He was a brother in Alpha Chi Sigmathe professional chemistry fraternity. Though he was nominated 41 times,  G. Lewis
Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
On March 23,Lewis was found dead in his Berkeley laboratory where he had been working with hydrogen cyanide ; many postulated that the cause of his death was suicide. After Lewis' death, his children followed their father's career in chemistry. Lewis was born in and raised in Weymouth, Massachusettswhere there exists a street named for him, G.
Lewis Way, off Summer Street. Additionally, the wing of the new Weymouth High School Chemistry department has been named in his honor. Lewis received his primary education at home from his parents, Frank Wesley Lewis, a "Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating" of independent character, and Mary Burr White Lewis.
He read at age three and was intellectually precocious. In his family moved to Lincoln, Nebraskaand in he received his first formal education at the university preparatory school.
Inafter two years at the University of NebraskaLewis transferred to Harvard Universitywhere he obtained his B. After a year of teaching at Phillips Academy in AndoverLewis returned to Harvard to study with the physical chemist T.
Richards and obtained his Ph. In the following years, Lewis started to criticize and denounce his former teacher on many occasions, calling Nernst's work on his heat theorem " a regrettable episode in the history of chemistry ".
There is evidence that he used the Nobel nominating and reporting procedures to block a Nobel Prize for Lewis in thermodynamics by nominating Lewis for the prize three times, and then using his position as a committee member to write negative reports.
After his stay in Nernst's lab, Lewis returned to Harvard in as an instructor for three more years. He was appointed instructor in thermodynamics and electrochemistry. The next year he returned to Cambridge, Massachusetts when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT appointed him to a faculty position, in which he had a chance to join a group of outstanding physical chemists under the direction of Arthur Amos Noyes. He Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating an assistant professor inassociate professor in and full professor in Lewis Hall at Berkeley, built inis named in his honor.
The most important was thermodynamics, a subject in which Richards was very active at that time. Although most of the important thermodynamic relations were known bythey were seen as isolated equations, and had not yet been rationalized as a logical system, from which, given one relation, the rest could be derived.
Moreover, these relations were inexact, applying only to ideal chemical systems.
These were two outstanding problems of theoretical thermodynamics. In two long and ambitious theoretical papers in andLewis tried to provide a solution. Lewis introduced the thermodynamic concept of activity and coined the term " fugacity ". Lewis believed that fugacity was the fundamental principle from which a system of real thermodynamic relations could be derived.
This hope was not realized, though fugacity did find a lasting place in the description of real gases. These ideas were well known to physicists and mathematicians, but not to most practical chemists, who regarded them as abstruse and inapplicable to chemical systems. Heat of reaction is not, of course, a measure of the tendency of chemical changes to occur, and Lewis realized that only free energy and entropy could provide an exact chemical thermodynamics.
He derived free energy from fugacity; he tried, without success, to obtain an exact expression for the entropy function, which in had not been defined at low temperatures. Richards too tried and failed, and not until Nernst succeeded in was it possible to calculate entropies unambiguously. At Harvard, Lewis also wrote a theoretical paper on the thermodynamics of blackbody radiation in which he postulated that light has a pressure.
He later revealed that he had been discouraged from pursuing this idea by his older, more conservative colleagues, who were unaware that Wilhelm Wien and others were successfully pursuing the same line of thought. From the start of his career, Lewis regarded himself as both chemist and physicist. About Lewis started to use unpublished drawings Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating cubical atoms in his lecture notes, in which the corners of the cube Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating possible electron positions.
Lewis later cited these notes in his classic paper on chemical bonding, as being the first expression of his ideas. Inwhile trying to explain the laws of valence to his students, Lewis conceived the idea that atoms were built up of a concentric series of cubes with electrons at each corner. Lewis did not publish his theory of the cubic atom, but in it became an important part of his theory of the shared electron pair bond.
Inhe published his classic paper on chemical bonding " The Atom and the Molecule "  in which he Enlace ionico definicion yahoo dating the idea of what would become known as the covalent bondconsisting of a shared pair of electrons, and he defined the term odd molecule the modern term is free radical when an electron is not shared. He included what became known as Lewis dot structures as well as the cubical atom model.