Cheating is the receiving of a reward for ability or finding an easy way out of an unpleasant situation by dishonest means. It is generally used for the breaking of rules to gain unfair advantage in a competitive situation. This broad definition will Pengertian wiji dating include acts of bribery, cronyismnepotismsleaze and any situation where individuals are given preference using inappropriate criteria.
Cheating can refer specifically to infidelity. Someone who is known for cheating is referred to as a cheat Pengertian wiji dating British Englishand a cheater in American English. A person described as a "cheat" doesn't necessarily cheat all the time, but rather, relies on deceiving tactics to the point of acquiring a reputation for it.
See also notorious cheat Jane Dickey. Academic cheating a significantly common occurrence in high schools and colleges in the United States. This includes tests, copying homework, and papers. The findings were corroborated in part by a Gallup survey. The Chinese civil service examinationsthe main route to career success for literate men in imperial China, was bedeviled for centuries by rampant cheating and examiner-bribery, as detailed in books like the Ming-dynasty Book of Swindles.
Cheating in sports is the intentional breaking of rules in order to obtain an advantage over the other teams or players.
Sports are governed by both customs and explicit rules regarding acts which are permitted and forbidden at the event and away from it. Forbidden acts frequently include performance-enhancing drug taking known as " doping "using equipment that does not conform to the rules or altering the condition of equipment during play, and deliberate harassment or injury to competitors.
One of the most famous instances of cheating involving a prohibited player action occurred during the FIFA World Cup quarter-final, when Diego Maradona used his hand to punch the ball into the goal of England goalkeeper Peter Shilton.
Illegally altering the condition of playing equipment is frequently seen in bat sports such as baseball and cricketwhich are heavily dependent on equipment condition. For example, in baseball, a pitcher using a doctored baseball e. Tennis golf are also no strangers to equipment cheating, with players "Pengertian wiji dating" accused of using rackets of illegal string tension, or golf clubs of illegal weight, size, or make.
Equipment cheating can occur via the use of external aids in situations where equipment is prohibited - such as in American football via the use of stickum on the hands of receivers, making the ball easier to catch.
Athletic cheating is a widespread problem. For example, in professional bodybuildingcheating is now estimated to be so universal that it is now considered impossible to engage in professional competition without cheating and the use of supposedly banned substances; bodybuilders who refuse to Pengertian wiji dating banned substances now compete in natural bodybuilding leagues. Cheating may also be seen in coaching. One of the most common forms of this is the use of bribery and kickbacks in the player recruitment process.
Another common form of cheating in coaching is profiteering in association with gamblers and match fixing see also the section below on cheating in the gambling industry. The most famous coach of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Runnin' Rebels basketball team, Jerry Tarkanianwas accused of both recruitment fraud and gambling fraud over the course of his career and was the subject of intense NCAA scrutiny.
Another form of this involves a team coach or other manager undertaking corporate espionage or another form of spying in order to obtain details about other teams' strategies and tactics. The New England Patriots videotaping controversyin which the New England Patriots were found to have videotaped an opposing team from an unapproved location while trying to obtain defensive Pengertian wiji dating. As was the Pittsburgh Steelers use of, at the time legal, performance enhancers.
However, there was cheating proven by the Denver Broncos during their back to back titles in the late 90's to circumvent Pengertian wiji dating league's salary cap and obtain and retain players that they would otherwise not have been able to. Circumvention of rules governing conduct and procedures of a sport can also be considered cheating.
During the Formula One Seasondriver Fernando Alonso was labelled a "cheat" for exchanging confidential information between the teams of Scuderia Ferrari and Mclaren a form of collusion. An example of cheating via judging collusion occurred in the Winter Olympics figure skating scandal when the Russian team was awarded a
Pengertian wiji dating medal over the Canadian team in an alleged vote-swapping judging deal; the Canadian team's silver medals were eventually upgraded to gold at a second awards ceremony and the French judge was suspended for misconduct.
The head of the French skating federation was later also suspended, and both were banned from the Olympic Games. Cheating is also used to refer to movements in strength training that transfer weight from an Pengertian wiji dating or fatigued muscle group to a different or fresh muscle group. This allows the cheater to move an initial greater weight if the cheating through an entire training set or to continue exercising past the point of muscular exhaustion if the cheating begins part way through the set.
As strength training is not a sport, cheating has no rule-based consequences, but can result in injury or a failure to meet training goals.
This is because each exercise is designed to target specific muscle groups and if the proper form is not used the weight can be transferred away from the targeted group. In video games, cheating can take Pengertian wiji dating form of secret access codes in single-player games such as the Konami code  which unlock
Pengertian wiji dating bonus for the player when entered, hacks and exploits which give players an unfair advantage in online multiplayer games and single-player modes, or unfair collusion between players in online games such as a player who spectates a match, removing limitations "Pengertian wiji dating" as " fog of war ", and reports on enemy positions to game partners.
Attitudes towards cheating vary. Using exploits in single-player modes is usually considered to be simply another form of exploring the game's content unless the player's accomplishments are to be submitted competitively, and is common in single-player games with a high difficulty level; however, cheating in multiplayer modes is considered immoral and harshly condemned by fair players and developers alike.
On one hand, cheating allows casual players to complete games at much-accelerated speed, which can be helpful in some cinematic or one-player games, which can take a subjectively long time to finish, as is typical of the Role-Playing Game RPG genre.
Cheating in those types of games is generally prohibited - though often widespread anyway. In many circles, the purchasing of items or currency from sources outside the game is also considered to be cheating. The Terms of Service from many games where this is possible, directly prohibits this activity. Games that grant excessive advantages only available to paying customers may be criticized as being 'Pay to win'  - sometimes considered a form of "cheating" that is actually legitimatized by the system - whilst games that limit real-money purchases to cosmetic changes are generally accepted as fair.
Another form of video game cheating is when a player does things to interact with game objects that are unforeseen by the programmers and break the intended function or reward system of the object.
This can involve the way enemies are encountered, objectives met, items used, "Pengertian wiji dating" any other game object that contains a software bug. One common example is the exploitation of errors in an enemy's pathfinding ; if a player can cause an enemy to become "stuck" in a given terrain feature, that player can then usually dispatch the enemy from a distance without risk, even if much stronger, and achieve greater rewards than the Pengertian wiji dating is intended to be able to at that level of progression.
Another example was common in early first-person shooter games and involved skipping a weapon's reload timer by quickly switching weapons back and forth Pengertian wiji dating actually reloading the weapons; resulting in what was effectively instant reloading. It also can be accomplished through means of altered game files are substituted for the normal files, or image graphics changed to permit greater visibility of the targets, etc.
Generally speaking, there is often some concern that this is not truly cheating, as it is the fault of the programmers that such an exploit exists in the first place. However, technically, as with live sports, it is cheating if the player is not playing the game in a formally approved manner, breaking unwritten rules.
In some cases, this behavior is directly prohibited by the Terms of Service of the game. The wagering of money on an event extends the motivation for cheating beyond directly participating competitors. As in sport and games, cheating in gambling is generally related to directly breaking rules or laws, or misrepresenting the event being wagered on, or interfering in the outcome. A boxer who takes a dive, a casino which plays with secretly loaded dicea rigged roulette wheel or slot machineor a doctored deck of cardsare generally regarded as cheating, because it has misrepresented the likelihood of the game's outcomes beyond what is reasonable to expect a bettor to protect himself against.
However, for a bookmaker to flatter a horse in order to sell bets on it at shorter odds may be regarded as salesmanship rather than cheating, since bettors can counter this by informing themselves and by exercising skepticism. Doping a horse is a clear example of cheating by interfering Pengertian wiji dating the instruments of the event under wager. Again, not all interference is cheating; spending money to support the health and well-being of a horse one has wagered on is not in itself generally regarded as cheating, nor is improving the morale of a sportsman one has backed by cheering for them.
Generally, Pengertian wiji dating is more likely to be regarded as cheating if it diminishes the standard of a sporting competition, damages a participant, or modifies the apparatus of the event or game. In the world of gambling, knowing a secret which is not priced into the odds gives a significant advantage, which may give rise to a perception of cheating.
However, legal systems do not regard secretly making use of knowledge in this way as criminal deception in itself. This is in contrast to the financial world, where people with certain categories of relationship to a company are restricted from transacting, which would constitute the crime of insider trading. This may be because of a stronger presumption of equality between investors, or it may be because a company employee who also trades in the company's stock has a conflict of interest, and has thus misrepresented himself the company.
An advantage player typically uses mental, observational or technical skills to choose when and how much to bet, and neither interferes with the instruments of the game nor breaks any of its rules. Representatives of the casino industry have claimed that all advantage play is cheating, but this of view is reflected neither among societies in general nor in legislation. As ofthe only example of a type of advantage play being unlawful is for an advantage player to use an auxiliary device in the U.
State of Nevadawhose legislation is uniquely influenced by large casino corporations. Nonetheless it remains a widely held principle that the law should not impose any restraint over the method by which a player arrives at a playing or betting decision from information held by him lawfully and which he is not debarred from under the rules of the game.
In "hole carding", a casino player tries to catch sight of the front of cards which are dealt face-down according to the rules. One way of cheating and profiting through gambling is to bet against yourself and then intentionally lose.
This is known as throwing a game or taking a dive. Illegal gamblers will at times pay sports players to lose so that they may profit from the otherwise unexpected loss.
An especially notorious case is the Black Sox Scandalwhen eight players of the Chicago White Sox took payment from gamblers and intentionally played poorly.
Pengertian wiji dating Another happened in boxing when Jake LaMotta famously took a dive against Billy Fox in order to obtain his entry to a championship match against Marcel Cerdana deal offered by the mobsters who controlled professional boxing. Various regulations exist to prevent unfair competitive advantages in business and finance,  for example competition lawor the prohibition of insider trading.
The most extreme forms of cheating e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the high school comedy film, see Cheats film. For other uses, see Cheat disambiguationCheater disambiguationand Cheating disambiguation. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.
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