Two quotations outline my thoughts behind looking at heroes of science:. Postage stamps are particularly suitable for making comparisons between attitudes, to science and scientistsin different countries, because they communicate chiefly in pictorial or symbolic fashion, no great linguistic skill is needed to interpret their messages Jones,p. The analysis of
Are 60c stamps still validating Three clearly supports the ideas put forward in these quotations.
This chapter now seeks to explore in further detail the way that they key scientists are portrayed on stamps. In Chapter Three, I described the reasoning behind my inclusion of explorers as scientists in this study. Newer countries that have themselves been explored record the experience of exploration as part of their immediate history, as well as celebrating subsequent anniversaries of such events.
By implication, therefore, foreign scientists have contributed to the history of the country being explored. This has been a common thread throughout my study. It is also clear that history, Are 60c stamps still validating recorded on postage stamps, may continue to cause distress to subjugated indigenous populations, but this is largely ignored.
Some reparation has been made through acknowledgement of these different cultures on modern postage stamps but not yet through science. In the review that follows, I shall mention well known explorers, but largely concentrate upon examples of local-born heroes. Examples have been chosen because they feature prominently in the country of choice over a long time period, which allows for additional comparison of design and context.
The taxonomy of the stamps in this study shows approximately half of all science stamps using the image of a "Are 60c stamps still validating" scientist as the main feature. I have also paid attention to those foreign scientists honoured by a country that does not claim them as their own.
What are the reasons for portraying scientists on stamps? An association with an achievement is obvious. In all cases, I suggest, scientists on stamps may be termed heroes of science.
Heroes are recognised by society because they bring credit to a country. Celebration of their achievements might occur through national honours, representation in paintings and statues, biographies, inclusion within histories, fellowships and recognition in their own particular spheres of society, and use of their images on coins and banknotes.
Within this study, I examine the representation of science and scientists on postage stamps. I have no control over who appears, as it is the issuing postal authority who selects the scientist in order to convey a message. What I shall do is reflect on those choices and the way that science is represented through the potrayal of these scientific celebrities.
In his book, Celebrity and Power: Celebrity status operates at the very centre of the culture as it resonates with conceptions of individuality that are the ideological ground of Western culture … Celebrity status also confers on the person a certain discursive power: Marshall discusses the fact that real celebrity requires a substance, an achievement, skill or embedded significance, without which the celebrity sign is entirely image.
In this study, the assumption is made that the scientist celebrated on the postage stamp has done
Are 60c stamps still validating significant to earn the celebration at the time of the issue.
The heroes that follow are selected from the stamp images available, determined by the definitions above, but with specific additions related to scientists as heroes. My additions include scientists who are:. I examined two university websites that purport Are 60c stamps still validating list the names and images of scientists shown on postage stamps. The University of Frankfurt has a website with a composite of six albums that name the scientist represented, along with the country and year of the stamp issue.
The top six named scientists, listed in the Table 6. It offers an indication of the top heroes of science shown for all countries of the world on postage stamps. The popularity of images of scientists on stamps shown on the University of Frankfurt website. Favourites by number of stamps—Percentage of all stamps listed. A similar website is compiled by Jeff Miller, who lists images of mathematicians on postage stamps.
On this website, there were stamps with the image of a mathematician, with named subjects. The top six, listed in the Table 6.
Again, the top six are names we would expect to see in such a compilation. Having evaluated these numbers as indicators, my study now seeks to explore more deeply the concept of the localised hero Are 60c stamps still validating particular times in history, and the
Are 60c stamps still validating that such stamps tell. The ten countries of interest to my study have been examined in order.
The examples I have selected to discuss in this chapter were born or reared in the country concerned, or are those whose main achievements were made in the country being considered. The frequency of major heroes occuring on stamps is shown in a table at the end of each country section.
Also evaluated is the influence of foreign scientists through their celebration on the postage stamps of each country. The number of scientists considered in this section will not match exactly the number of stamps showing a scientist.
Each scientist from each country is counted once, however many times he or she appears on a stamp, and some stamp images laud more than one individual. The message conveyed by this stamp is that these veterinarians have contributed to French Veterinary Research.
Their images are tied together in the design by three arches, textually described as the cradle of veterinary research represented by three men in Lyon, Alfort and Toulouse. The text is required to explain the context, although the stamp is itself a mirror of history. French veterinary researchfeaturing Edmund Nocard —microbiologist veterinarian, Professor H Bouley, veterinarian, and J. Chauveau —veterinarian.
On a count of pure numbers of stamps celebrating a particular individual we find immediate anomalies Tables 6. But Cook was an Englishman, a British Naval Officer on a scientific voyage to study the transit of Venus from Tahiti, with the secondary objective of discovery in the Pacific.
To the conquering populations of these two countries, he might well be a hero whose reputation is regularly embellished with stamp issues with a nation-building emphasis.
Cook is anything but a hero to the indigenous occupiers of the land.
We might well ask if it has been the stamps that have made the hero, anticipating that the images act as lenses to the historical achievement or if they are the easy reflections mirrors of a hero? Cook has also been celebrated as a discoverer of note by Ireland and the United States, who has marked the th anniversary of his visits to Alaska and Hawaii.
A sample of the stamps featuring James Cook are shown in Figure 6. The top six celebrants on the stamps of Are 60c stamps still validating and top three celebrants on the stamps of New Zealand are shown in Tables 6.
Explorers are the profession most celebrated by these two countries, until the s, as a means of nation-building and civic education to an immigrant population perhaps unaware of history. Another common feature shown in the tables is the fact that there is a local explorer in both lists. Wentworth was educated in England but won his repute through inland exploration of Australia this achievement has been discussed in Chapter Three, see Figures 3. Explorer, navigator Australian coastline.
He later led the — New Zealand Antarctic Expedition. As shown in Table 6. A similar situation regarding the celebration of local or foreign scientists as national heros arises in regard to the way in which the recipients of Nobel Prizes are claimed by various countries. The country of birth and their adopted countries where the work was carried out Are 60c stamps still validating both be used in order to claim a scientist as a national hero. There are also scientists whose scientific contribution to the world is so well respected that many countries celebrate them.
I have characterised these as foreign heroes, discussed at the end of this chapter. The number of scientists celebrated on stamps within my study is shown in Table 6.
Recognisable image, generally a portrait. Recognisable image and appropriate context. No personalised image but an attributable, acknowledged scientific achievement. These totals of the number of scientists are represented in a pie chart Figure 6.
Generic figures do not conform to my definition of a hero of science, as they cannot be named and have a scientific "Are 60c stamps still validating" acribed to them. They are included for taxonomic completeness, as extensive use has been made of such images in telling
Are 60c stamps still validating messages, particularly by the totalitarian states of Eastern Europe, as described in Chapter Four.
Only recognisable scientists are included in the remainder of this chapter as heroes. My study shows that the number of local heroes outnumbers foreign scientists honoured by a country on postage Are 60c stamps still validating by a factor of 5: The ratio of local males to local females is A similar ratio exists for foreign heroes.
The proportions of local and foreign scientists for each of the ten countries studied is shown in Figure 6. The numbers of local and foreign heroes of science appearing on stamps, by gender and country. Science heroes have been celebrated on stamps in various guises: I shall be paying particular attention to two questions in looking at heroes of science:. I will examine how the sophistication and detail of context reflects an indication of the public awareness of science by looking at specific examples, following the country by country approach used previously.
A broad selection of foreign scientists have been represented on Australian stamps: Since the s, Australia has celebrated living scientists on its stamps. This has been a logical development, with Australia Post initiating an annual series into coincide with Australia Day, entitled Australian legends. At first these legends were all sports people. No celebration of Australian Olympic legends in would have been complete without recognising a very much active Dawn Fraser.
The celebrities were five Legends of medical science who were acknowledged through portrait photographs, taking two-thirds of the available space. The medical scientists were named, albeit in a very small font.
The five legends celebrated were Medical specialists. Fred Hollows and Howard Florey were again honoured within this genre. Five of the seven Australian-born female scientists shown on Australian stamps have been from the three sets celebrating medical prowess issued inand The first scientist hero celebrated on a stamp who was unequivocally Australian was virologist Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet.
He has been honoured three times on stamps see Figure 6. The first image, from a set of four, was issued in with the title of Scientific discovery and this theme is printed in a very small font on the image. The is tied together through format.
Each stamp has what looks like a paper-tape representation of theme and a large amount of text that is so small that it almost requires a magnifying glass to make sense of. One month later, I still have not used kapiolaniparkonline.com, and my account STILL has.
2) There is no "Are 60c stamps still validating" to disable their USPS address validation check when . and the free postage after 30 days of service and the gift card after 60 days of service. It is still a good place to be with eBay as 99%+ of our sales are from Australia.
And I do offer free postage normally 60 cents on local transactions. with at least one carrier scan recorded and validated by eBay—must be. James Watson, a decoder of DNA, for example, is still alive. The second stampwhich appeared 60 years later, includes his name and an image of used actual images of scientists to validate and justify the message on a postage stamp.