The sovereign state is a secularunitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a
Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian -speaking region of Transoxiana.
The area was incorporated into the Persian Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rulewas ruled mostly by Persian dynasties. The Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from Silk Road.
The local Khwarezmian dynastyand Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became increasingly dominated by Turkic peoples. The city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timuralso known as one of Genghis Khan 's grandchildren, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand.
The area was conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara. The region was split into three states: It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan.
Inafter national delimitationthe constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the breakup of the Soviet Unionit declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its storied history and strategic location.
Russian has widespread use as a governmental language; it is the most widely taught second language.
A majority Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. While officially a democratic republic,  by non-governmental human rights organizations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights". Following the death of Islam Karimov inthe second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyevstarted a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above.
He stated he intended to abolish cotton slaverysystematic use of child labour,  exit visasto introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zonesas well as amnestied some political prisoners. The relations with neighboring countries of TajikistanKyrgyzstan and Afghanistan drastically improved. The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economywith foreign trade policy being based on import substitution.
In Septemberthe country's currency became fully convertible in the market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. The country also operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gasUzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia. It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population.
Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north and northwest, Turkmenistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is one of the largest Central Asian states and the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countriesthe other being Liechtenstein.
In addition, due to its location Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction a series of endorheic basins, none "Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction" its rivers lead to the sea. The rest is vast desert Kyzyl Kum and mountains. The climate in Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually — millimetres, or 3. Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment.
However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.
The Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use. Reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organization or official agency. Much of the water was and continues to be used for the irrigation of cotton fields, a crop requiring a large amount of water to grow. Due to the Aral Sea problem, high salinity and contamination of the soil with heavy elements are especially widespread in Karakalpakstanthe region of Uzbekistan adjacent to the Aral Sea.
Heavy use Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction pesticides and fertilizers for cotton growing further aggravates soil contamination. The first people known to have inhabited Central Asia were Scythians who came from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan, sometime in the first millennium BC; when these nomads settled in the region they built an extensive irrigation system along the rivers.
As China began to develop its silk trade with the West, Persian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centres of trade. Using an extensive network of cities and rural settlements in the province of Transoxianaand further east in what is today China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Sogdian intermediaries became the wealthiest of these Iranian merchants.
As a result of this trade on what became known as the Silk RouteBukhara and Samarkand eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Transoxiana Mawarannahr was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity. A conquest was supposedly of little help to Alexander as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region that became the northern part of the Macedonian Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by the Persian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction, as well as by other empires, for example those formed by the Turko-Persian Hephthalite and Turkic Gokturk peoples. In the 8th century, Transoxiana, the territory between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, was conquered by the Arabs Ali ibn Sattor who enriched the region with the Early Renaissance.
Many notable scientists lived there and contributed to its development during the Islamic Golden Age. Among the achievements of the scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moonadvances in opticsin astronomyas well as in poetry, philosophy, art, calligraphy and many others, which set the foundation for the Muslim Renaissance.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, Transoxiana was included into the Samanid State. The Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan during the 13th century would bring about a change to the region. The Mongol invasion of Central Asia led to the displacement of some of the Iranian-speaking people of the their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian - Turkic peoples who came thereafter.
The invasions of Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and others resulted in mass murders and unprecedented destruction, Artur taymazov wife sexual dysfunction as portions of Khwarezmia being completely razed. Following the death of Genghis inhis empire was divided among his four sons and his family members.
Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, the Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Transoxiana stayed in the hands of the direct descendants of Chagatai Khanthe second son of Genghis Khan.
Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained a strong and united kingdom Ulus Batiy, Sattarkhan. In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts. The Chaghatai territory was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence.
One tribal chieftain, Timur Tamerlane emerged from these struggles in the s as the dominant force in Transoxiana. Although he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan, Timur became the de facto ruler of Transoxiana and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iranthe CaucasusMesopotamiaAsia Minorand the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea. He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in Timur was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres in the cities he occupied.