The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, were returned properly filled.
Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments Most of the respondents We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths.
Mass media is defined as those media that are designed to be consumed by large audiences through Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality agencies of technology. The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmits information and services such as electronic mail, online chat, title transfer, interlinked web pages, and other documents of the World Wide Web.
Sexual discussions and displays are increasingly frequent and explicit in all forms of the mass media. Depictions of intercourse suggestive or explicit occurred in one of every ten programs. The alarming increase of rape, teenage pregnancies, septic abortions, and sexually transmitted infections, especially human immunodeficiency virus HIVamong undergraduates in Nigeria 21 makes research into the effects of the mass media and the Internet on their sexual behavior even more important.
This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Osogbo, the capital of Osun State, Nigeria; the target population was undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis. The town has three universities: Questionnaires were administered to students at two randomly selected schools within the Universities; the lower-level medical students of Osun State University, and the upper-level basic medical laboratory science students at LAUTECH.
In addition, verbal informed consent was obtained from each respondent. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents. This self-administered questionnaire was divided into four sections. The validity of the data collected was ensured by double entry and by random checks for errors.
Relevant frequency distribution tables and summary measures were generated. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of being sexually experienced that is, those who have ever had sex and of having multiple sexual partners. Outcome variables for the attitudes of respondents were scored using a five-point Likert scale strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree.
These ratings were compressed to agree, undecided, and disagree in the logistic regression tables. Of the questionnaires distributed, completed questionnaires were returned, resulting in a response rate of Table 1 shows the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents.
Most were between 20—24 years of age Most of the respondents were aware of the various forms of mass media, such as radio and television Films were the favorite types of television programming for more than half of the respondents Of the who accessed sexually explicit materials on the Internet, 56 Regarding attitudes toward mass media and the Internet, most respondents disagreed or strongly disagreed that premarital sex After scoring of outcome variables, Table 5 shows the sexual behavior patterns of respondents.
Most of the respondents were aware of various forms of sexual behaviors, such as masturbation Of the sexually experienced respondents, Almost all the respondents in this study were aware of the Internet and the mass media, with more than 9 of 10 respondents knowing about the various forms of mass media.
This is similar to what has been reported in earlier studies, 13 and it is expected because young people have been said to be vigorous users of the mass media. This differs from what has Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality reported in other studies, which generally have found that most adolescents have access to the mass media and the Internet.
This has been similarly reported in other studies. This has been corroborated by other studies, 28 — 30 and it has been reported that sexual content is more explicit in movies than on television.
Interestingly, despite the fact that most of the respondents considered the Internet to be a source of sexually explicit materials and to have effect on their sexual behaviors, most of them also considered the Internet to be their favorite source of information and entertainment. It is therefore surprising that only a few studies and even fewer studies in developing countries have examined the sexual content of the Internet in relation to the sexual behavior of the young people.
There is a Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality deal of existing literature on the influence of mass media on the behaviors of adolescents and young adults, particularly in the United States and other Western cultures; thus, the strength of this study is that it is assessing a country where not as much research has been done on the relationship between mass media and sexual behavior.
This pattern is likely to result in varied and unbalanced information, often with poor quality. Young adolescents are shaped by their experiences.
The sexually explicit information found on the Internet is often inaccurate and harmful. It often lacks descriptions of intimacy or the development of deep personal relationships.
In this regard, it is critical to view the Internet as a new social environment in which universal adolescent issues pertaining to identity formation, sexuality, and self-worth are explored in a virtual world.
Easy and continuous access to the Internet provides tremendous opportunities for adolescent socialization, allowing them to connect with their peers as well as with complete strangers from across the world.
Clearly, the Internet is transforming the social world of adolescents by influencing how they communicate, establish and maintain relationships, and find social support. Therefore, it is essential to gain awareness of both the potential benefits and risks of teen Internet use and to provide strategies to guide safe and positive practice. Half of the respondents said they used the Internet often, and there was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and frequency of accessing sexually explicit materials on the Internet, with frequent users of the Internet more likely to frequently access sexually explicit materials.
There was also a significant association between being sexually active and the frequency of Internet use and frequency of accessing sexually explicit materials on the Internet, with
Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality who used the Internet or accessed sexually explicit materials often being more likely to be sexually active.
This is similar to the finding of Brown et al, 32 who in their longitudinal study found that the quintile of teens who consumed the greatest amount of sexual-media content in early adolescence were more than twice as likely as those with lighter sexual-media diets to have initiated sexual intercourse by the time they were 16 years old.
This is similar to what was reported in a study carried out among undergraduates in the United States, wherein two thirds of the males and half of the females considered viewing pornography to be acceptable. This pattern has been reported in earlier studies generally showing that young adults, especially those in developing countries, are becoming more sexually experienced.
This relationship also has been reported in previous studies. Peterson et al 35 found an association between duration of television viewing and early initiation of sexual intercourse among adolescents. Brown and Newcomer 11 also found that junior-high-school students who watched television with more sexual content were more likely to have initiated sexual activity than were those who watched less sexual-media content.
This is similar to the opinions shared by previous authors. These sites could be used by young people when they have nowhere else to turn. Most of the respondents in this study were aware of the various forms of mass media and the Internet, although only a few of them had ready access to these. Most of the respondents spent 3—5 hours a day watching television, and most also used the Internet often. There was a significant relationship between sexual activity, time spent watching television, and the frequency of Internet use: Frequency of Internet use for accessing sexual materials Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality found to be a predictor of being sexually active and of the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners.
Families should regularly discuss with their children the limitations of the information in the mass media and its potential misuse in relation to reproductive health and rights. Because Nigerian undergraduates are required to take a general course on information and communication technology as a way of acquiring basic knowledge in this arena, colleges and institutions should use this opportunity to educate students on the use and misuse of the mass media and proper use of the Internet as source of information on sexual issues.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Adolesc Health Med Ther. Published online Jan Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
The full terms of the License are available at http: Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Abstract Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria.
Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Conclusion We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet could negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths. Introduction Mass media is defined as those media that are designed to be consumed by large audiences through the agencies of technology. Materials and methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in Osogbo, the capital of Osun State, Nigeria; the target population was undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis.
Results Of the questionnaires distributed, completed questionnaires were returned, resulting in a response rate of Open in a separate window. Discussion Almost all Interval variable definition statistics of sexual immorality respondents in this study were aware of the Internet and the mass media, with more than 9 of 10 respondents knowing about the various forms of mass media. Conclusion and recommendations Most of the respondents in this study were aware of the various forms of mass media and the Internet, although only a few of them had ready access to these.