In the last decades, science has collected an impressive body of knowledge to reveal the structure of crime and personal characteristics of offenders.
One of the main purposes of research in this field is the assessment of offenders who are under the risk of The identification of the risk to recidivate is also essential for offender rehabilitation.
According to the widely-used risk-need-responsivity RNR model, formulated by Andrews and Bontatreatment should be provided for offenders with a high risk of recidivism risk principle.
Furthermore, treatment is especially effective when criminogenic needs are directly addressed need principle in an adequate manner responsivity principle.
Within this model, the Central Eight risk factors provide a broad and commonly used accumulation of the most prominent predictors risk and needs of future delinquent behavior.
These factors are the fundamental basis of risk assessment tools like the Level of Service LS instruments e. Many meta-analyses and studies have proven the validity LS instruments globally e.
Reflecting an ever-growing diversity in European "Cultura arabe sexual offenders" Eurostat,the current prison population is more diverse compared to samples used in previous European studies e.
Thus, it is very important to ensure the validity Cultura arabe sexual offenders risk assessment for diverse subgroups individually cf. Van der Put, Stams, Dekovic, Hoeve, and van der Laan argued that treatments among culturally diverse offenders might be less effective when the treated risk factors are not able to predict recidivism.
However, exact mechanisms of how culture and migration might influence the development and maintenance of delinquent behavior have rarely been integrated in common crime theories e. Shepherd and Lewis-Fernandez outline how a culture-insensitive approach might result in an inadequate measurement, biased decisions, and ineffective treatment due to unidentified and unaddressed specific needs.
They argue that although risk factors between cultures show great similarity that does not necessarily imply that all risk factors are similarly appropriate.
Although the need of integrating cross-cultural aspects into risk assessment has been addressed in current literature e. To formulate concrete hypotheses, it seems appropriate to focus on different cultural groups separately. For this purpose, culture can be defined via basic value orientations Schwartz, Although many other aspects of culture within the region will vary, there is great similarity regarding very close social bonds, low egalitarianism, and low autonomy e. Additionally, in European prisons, offenders from Turkey and Arab countries comprise a large percentage of offenders with a migration background MB; having at least one foreign-born parent; e.
Thus, addressing the risk and needs of this subgroup seems to be very important. In the following section, we will review some aspects of migration and culture and directly link relevant Cultura arabe sexual offenders to the Central Eight risk factors to infer hypotheses on culture-sensitive risk profiles cf. The best predictor for future behavior is previous behavior and the most prominent risk factor for delinquency is antisocial behavior in the past Gendreau et al.
Migrants from Turkey and Arab countries are overrepresented in German crime statistics.
Differences in crime rates might be due to demographical differences Albrecht,on the one hand, and migration "Cultura arabe sexual offenders," on the other hand cf. Stressors such as low economic status e. In addition to past behavior, stable personality traits such as an antisocial personality pattern are supposed to be very good predictors of future delinquent behavior Gendreau et al.
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorders is comparable in Turkey and EuroAmerican countries e. Consequently, we suppose that the various cultural groups will not differ in their total antisocial personality pattern score.
Andrews and Bonta stressed the importance of criminal attitudes comprising hostility, negative attitudes towards conventions, the sentence, or supervisions. Associated psychological constructs, such as morality e.
Because respect is hard to achieve and preserve in honor cultures, people may engage in various behaviors in order to maintain the respect of others including severe violence Kulwicki, In line, Uskul, Cross, Sunbay, Gercek-Swing, and Ataca reported a higher action readiness for Turkish students compared to American students within honor-related situations. Higher honor-related norms are, turn, associated with higher rates of violence Baier et Cultura arabe sexual offenders. In addition, the legal system and the approved legitimacy of authorities are highly dependent on cultural socialization Friedman, The justice system in Islamic countries differs from EuroAmerican jurisdictions Crystal, For example, compared to native Germans, Kurdish and Lebanese migrants abide more often to traditional and religious norms with a lower preference of regulation by state law concerning in-group conflicts Bierbrauer, From a Euro-American perspective, an external attribution is often connected to justification and rationalization, which is embraced by the concept of criminal attitudesand therefore seen as a risk factor for recidivism cf.
Taken together, we assume that offenders from Turkey or Arab countries should score higher on criminal attitudes compared to Germans without an MB because of cross-cultural differences that might affect the rating. Because delinquent attitudes are learned within groups, another main risk factor for delinquency is the association with other criminal individuals Gendreau et al.
Struggling with difficult living conditions, such as a low socioeconomic status e. Migrants from Turkey or Arab countries are exposed to such risk factors e. Taken together, we assume that inmates with a Turkish or Arab MB have more criminal companions than offenders without an MB.
The formation of attitudes takes place within the family of origin. In terms of general cultural dimensions, people from Turkey or Arab countries are less individualistic compared to Euro-Americans e.
Therefore, offenders from these cultures should have a lower risk for unsatisfactory relationships with their parents compared to German offenders without an MB. Despite a satisfactory relationship, Andrews and Bonta stress the importance of modelling law-conform behavior within families. Because interpersonal closeness and conformity to norms, as measured by delinquent behavior of family members, are not necessarily correlated, we will examine potential group differences for both aspects separately.
In Europe, migrants from Turkey or Arab countries often have more disadvantages regarding education and employment other migrants and natives because they normally come from less developed rural areas Algan et al.
Moreover, also the second-generation is very likely to face stereotypical expectations of teachers e. As this disparity should also be present in a prison population, offenders stemming from Turkey or Arab countries are assumed to score higher on the risk factor education and employment compared to German offenders without an MB.
Due to Islamic values, daily life is supposed to be relatively structured for Muslims compared to non-Muslims Yip, In connection to a less individualistic orientation e. Accordingly, compared to German offenders without an MB, offenders with a Turkish or Arab MB are expected to have fewer problems in developing structured leisure, as operationalized by Andrews and Bonta Concerning alcohol, Islamic values can be seen as a protective influence, as alcohol is prohibited in Islam e.
In contrast to Cultura arabe sexual offenders, an occasionally higher acceptance of drug use in some Muslim countries Baasher, as well as in Turkish and Arab communities in Europe Brussaard et al.
Thus, we assume adult offenders from Turkey or Arab countries to have fewer alcohol problems compared to offenders without an MB, but we expect no difference between groups regarding drug problems. In Cultura arabe sexual offenders, different risk profiles can be expected for offenders with a Turkish or Arab MB compared to native German offenders.
However, this assumption does not imply that the interconnections of the Central Eight risk factors is the same in every group. Following Andrews and Bontas definition and operationalization, hypotheses might contradict each other.
For example, being more strongly rooted in interdependent family structures does not necessarily imply a better social integration in the host society and a complete buffer for discrimination i.
In turn, discrimination might promote delinquent peer contacts. Hence, the interaction of the Central Eight risk factors is supposed to be connected to their specific operationalization and their predictive validity, which may vary between groups as well. Today, the use of structured instruments is considered essential in risk assessment. Whether the validity of risk assessment tools developed in Euro-American countries generalizes across different cultural subgroups is indecisive.
A recent court case in Canada challenged this assumption by stating that well-established instruments e. This challenge and its implications can easily be transferred to other jurisdictions, cultural subsamples, and assessment
Cultura arabe sexual offenders Hart, "Cultura arabe sexual offenders" Likewise, evidence regarding the cross-cultural invariance of the Central Eight is inconclusive. Furthermore, the effect sizes varied stronger among minority samples Olver et al.
Additionally, Olver and colleagues showed that the predictive validity was higher for all Central Eight when the study was conducted
Cultura arabe sexual offenders Canada compared to those reported outside of North-America Olver et al. Concerning predominantly Muslim countries, to our knowledge only one study is available.
Predictive values were similar to those reported in Euro-American contexts for most of the Central Eightexcept for criminal attitudesleisure, and criminal history. Only a few Cultura arabe sexual offenders have evaluated the predictive validity of the Central Eight for offenders stemming from predominantly Muslim countries who migrated to Euro-American countries.
The groups did not differ with respect to different recidivism events during a follow-up period of five years. Additional investigations regarding the predictive validity of the LSI-R for offenders with an MB revealed no effect of age or generation.
Taken together, evidence on the predictive validity of the Central Eight for ethnic minorities or culturally diverse sub samples is ambiguous.
Furthermore, offenders with an MB from Turkey or Arab countries have rarely been studied, although they comprise a large percentage of European prison populations. Consequently, the predictive validity of the Central Eight for offenders with a Turkish or Arab background remains uncertain.