Reproduction or procreation or breeding is the biological process by which new individual organisms — "offspring" — are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life ; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction.
There are two forms of reproduction: In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism.
Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself.
The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gameteswhich contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosiswith typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote.
This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms.
Asexual reproduction is a process by which organisms create genetically similar or identical copies of themselves without the contribution of genetic material from another organism. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission ; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras invertebrates of the order Hydroidea and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more copies of themselves.