Since the mids, Spain has presented itself as being at the forefront of sexual and gender legal rights, especially after the approval of a same-sex marriage law of and the creation of the new Ministry of Equality in In the meantime, the gap between the rich and the poor in Spain has become the highest in the OECD countries.
But the law does not clearly state the requirements needed to prove marital status, which can be problematic and result in limiting the rights of same-sex couples.
Domestic partnerships present another example of the diversity of sexual citizenship rights available in Spain. Between anddomestic partnerships were regulated through Municipal Domestic Partnership Registries existing in every town, and they were originally recognized in regional laws throughout most of Spain.
Many registries have closed because they were being accused of allowing couples with one migrant partner to commit immigration fraud. The difficulties queer migrants face in Spain include: All of these instances contribute to a generalized racist and xenophobic social and political environment. In this general scenario, an analysis of queer and trans rights benefits from the framework of homonationalism, [ 14 ] which highlights the growing convergence of and complicity between nationalist and homonormative citizenship agendas.
Belonging to the European Union requires meeting certain legal standards in terms of gender equality and sexual rights, even while it leaves room for organized state violence. It is vital to consider this context to understand the politics of naming in Spain, for Spanish-born citizens and also for immigrants, who face specific problems regarding the name they use or chose in their processes of migration.
First or given names—in Spanish, nombres de pila —with their power to name someone, have a strong impact on how people
El eje del mal es heterosexual family conceived, not only in terms of kinship, gender, class, race, migration, marital status, or belonging to different social groups, but also in regards to how people understand themselves. Names refer to a sense of relational identity, and are the subject of social norms, morality, and power dynamics among individuals.
Nonetheless, identities also can be changed, traded, or hidden through names, which reveals the political power located in the capacity to name. States, such as Spain, limit what is considered an appropriate name for a person, which always has a gender only a few names are unisexand manifests important geopolitical, cultural, religious and social influences. In Spain, the authority to determine what is an appropriate name, and who can effect a name change belongs to the Civil Registries and the judges who supervise them.
However, the Registries and the judges must also consider laws affecting immigration and transgender rights, which also regulate name propriety. Names and naming cannot be understood as neutral facts, since there is a certain sense of intelligibility embedded in a name.
Naming has to do with tying down someone through certain social categories, through the reiteration of certain rites, names and norms that provide meaning, "El eje del mal es heterosexual family" names intelligible.
It is also relevant that identification and recognition find a common place in personal names, which can be subject to self- and hetero-designation processes that may not coincide with each other. Some people feel the need to change the name they got at birth for different reasons.
On one hand, these changes contradict the lineal sense of time and unity of identity that Western societies privilege. They invite us to think in terms of queer time and space [ 23 ] which is often performed as presentism [ 24 ] and contradicting a certain notion of heterofuturibility. Naming discloses a geography of power relations and civil liberties.
El eje del mal es heterosexual family is also associated with specific forms of mobilization and the construction of problems that become public and social identity formation at different points in time. The next section is organized according to these two levels of governance, i. All too often, the official documents that attempt to fix sexual identity become a battlefield for transgender rights. Documents like birth certificates, passports, identity documents, driving licenses, and other official paperwork serve to establish identity, providing a sense of stability and fixity, and visibility to the state.
In most Anglo-Saxon countries, trans people, in their struggles to change their names and identities, have targeted the modification of the birth certificate or driving licenses.
Physical documents are not unproblematic texts.
Not even a written paper is fixed enough not to leave room for interpretation, when people are questioning you with it. Significantly, between andthe sex marker disappeared from this mandatory ID card. The mere idea of its absence seems unthinkable. Currently in Spain, the El eje del mal es heterosexual family card is of compulsory use in all daily transactions. The legislation affirms that each person identified in a DNI must have a clearly-gendered name, a disposition which has a clear negative impact on intersex and transgender people.
Elderly transgender people or in poor health are exempt from that last requirement.