To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among girls. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of being pleased with a teenage pregnancy.
In a multivariable model, participants who had not yet discussed sexual health topics i. Pregnancy prevention efforts can be improved by acknowledging the structural and cultural factors that shape teenage pregnancy attitudes.
InUS teenage birth rates hit a record low at Yet, enthusiasm over the "Sexually active girls" made in declining teenage birthrates is tempered because even at its lowest rate in over 7 decades, the US still remains disproportionately affected by high rates of teenage births when compared with other developed countries [ 23 ]. In fact, the US teenage birth rate is still as much as nine times higher than in other developed countries [ 4 ]. A of studies suggest that adolescents with comprehensive sexual health knowledge about pregnancy prevention are more likely to engage in protected sexual intercourse [ 5 — 7 ].
Accordingly, a common recommendation to prevent teenage pregnancy includes providing contraceptive counseling to sexually active youth [ 8 ]. In fact, most recent data from the National Survey of Family Growth report that four out of every five teenage girls have had sexual health discussions with one or more parents [ 49 ].
Nonetheless, sexual health information about pregnancy prevention is unlikely to be effective when adolescents desire pregnancy. Attitudes toward pregnancy tend to be correlated with contraceptive behaviors during sexual intercourse. For instance, ambivalence towards pregnancy is associated with less consistent contraceptive use, unprotected sexual and reliance on less effective contraceptive methods like the natural family planning method or withdrawal [ 10 — Sexually active girls ].
Thus, some research indicates that favoring the idea of becoming pregnant during adolescence can signal a risk for teenage pregnancy.
In the present study, we examine relationships between measures of sexual health information received from a parent or in a more formal setting i.
Therefore, we included in our analysis sociodemographic characteristics for e. Data was pooled from 2 cycles of the NSFG to increase sample size.
The NSFG employed a multistage, stratified and cluster sampling design to provide national data on topics related to childbearing and reproductive health of men and women aged 15—44 years. Data were collected via inperson face to face interviews with a trained female interviewer who utilized computer assisted personal interviewing CAPI to record responses. Data were weighted to adjust for non-response and oversampling of minorities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and adolescents of all races.
The institutional review board at "Sexually active girls" University reviewed and approved the study. All questions used to construct variables were the same in both the and — NSFG data sets. We utilized NSFG data to examine the relationship between attitude toward pregnancy and formal sex education and sexual health discussions with a parent.
The outcome of interest, attitude toward pregnancy, was assessed by one NSFG question: We utilized two separate
Sexually active girls questions to determine exposure to formal sex education. Participants were classified based on the type of Sexually active girls sex education they received which included education instruction on both topics how to say no to sex and birth controlone topic only received sex education on either how to say no to sex or birth controlor no formal sex education instruction.
Participants were classified as discussing how to say no and birth control sexual health messages with a parent when at least one of the three birth control topics i. Participants who discussed with a parent at least one of the three birth control topics but not how to say no to sexual intercourse were classified as discussing birth control sexual health messages only.
Last, participants who had not discussed with a parent any of the sexual health topics of interest were classified as such. First, variables of interest were assessed in bivariate analysis. Then a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model was built in which all independent variables were included in the model. Sample weights were applied to all analyses. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, and weighted percentages and means are presented.
Additional descriptive results are available in Table 1. The multivariable multinomial logistic regression model, as shown in Table 2which included all independent variables examined Table 2 was significant Wald F 7. Teenage girls who reported a prior pregnancy but had not given birth were more likely to be very pleased aOR 4.
Teenage girls whose parents a high school education or less compared to some college or more were more likely to be very pleased aOR 3. Older girls were more likely to be very pleased OR Sexually active girls 1 year increase in age 2. Formal sex education significantly associated with decreased risk of being very pleased with an adolescent pregnancy but the cell sample size was only 2.
Religiosity and survey year did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression examining associations with pregnancy attitude, females. We utilized data from a nationally representative study to improve understanding of pregnancy attitudes among sexually active teenage girls within a multivariable context.
Our results provide several insights that expand our understanding of attitudes toward pregnancy among adolescent girls. Additionally, we found that nearly a quarter of the sampled teenage girls had not discussed how to say no to sexual intercourse or birth control methods with a parent. Moreover,
Sexually active girls teenage girls who had not discussed these sexual health topics with a parent as well as those who had discussed birth control only but not how to say not to sexual intercourse were more likely to report being very pleased with a Sexually active girls pregnancy than girls who had discussed both topics with a parent.
In addition, previous studies suggest that parental sexual discussions about contraceptives do, in fact, have a positive effect on the subsequent sexual behavior of adolescents, including increased condom use and fewer acts of sexual activity [ 1819 ].
Another major finding of Sexually active girls study is that girls who had experienced a prior pregnancy but had not given birth were significantly more likely than never-pregnant counterparts to be very pleased and a little upset versus being very upset with an adolescent pregnancy.
Our results lead us to speculate if subsequent adolescent pregnancies are intended. While past findings indicate that contraception accessibility might prevent subsequent adolescent pregnancies [ 20 ], it is unlikely that this approach alone would be effective in reducing a subsequent pregnancy if another pregnancy is desired.
The findings of this study are limited by several factors. Such factors include quality or frequency of sexual health communications with parents, and relationships or communications with friends, intimate partners, or other adults.
However, the results must be interpreted in the context of ongoing research on risk behaviors of adolescents and young adults, including those studies that provide more detailed measurements of potential determinants of attitudes towards pregnancy.
Due to the cross-sectional and non-experimental design of the NSFG, we are unable to make any definitive conclusions about the direction of relationships. In addition, most of the variables were measured with single-items because multiple-item scales were not part of the NSFG interview. With regards to the NSFG queries on sexual health messages received participants, both school and church instruction were grouped together as were categories on various sexual health topics that a parent may have discussed with their children.
Similarly, there are potentially significant qualitative differences between parent—child discussions about methods "Sexually active girls" birth control, where to get birth control, and how to use a condom. Nevertheless, the advantage of using the NSFG data is that these are Sexually active girls high quality, nationally representative, and no other publically available national dataset measures the constructs that we examined in this study. Despite these limitations, the derived implications are significant.
Given the relatively high rate of sexually active teenage girls in our study who would be pleased with a teenage pregnancy 1 in 6we advise pregnancy prevention efforts to
Sexually active girls routine assessments of attitudes towards teenage pregnancy and motherhood. Sexuality education, in the traditional sense, conveys information on the technical aspects of how teenage pregnancy can be avoided via birth control methods or abstinence [ 5 ]. Importantly, our findings indicate that these current messages are having a negligible effect on teenage pregnancy attitudes.
In addition, pregnancy prevention efforts should identify strategies that are effective in educating youth to recognize that teenage pregnancy can be accompanied with lost educational and economic opportunities [ 24 ].
This prospect may be less convincing for some groups e. Cavazos-Rehg Sexually active girls full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Conflict of Interest Dr. Bierut acted a consultant for Pfizer, Inc. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Matern Child Health J.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1. Cavazos-RehgMelissa J. KraussEdward L. SpitznagelMario SchootmanLinda B.
Cottlerand Laura Jean Bierut. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Matern Child Health J.
Abstract To investigate factors associated with favorable pregnancy attitudes among teenage girls. Teenage pregnancy, Sexual education, Sexual health, Sexual behaviors—adolescent.