LGBT rights under communism have evolved radically throughout history. Communist leaders and intellectuals took many different positions on LGBT-rights issues.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Reddit closeted homosexual rights said very little on the subject in their published works. Marx in particular commented rarely on sexuality in general. Norman Markowitz, Reddit closeted homosexual rights for politicalaffairs. Guerre aux cons, paix aus trous-de-cul [war on the cunts, peace to the arse-holes] will now be the slogan". The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality volume two is unequivocal on Marx and Engels view of homosexuality, stating that, "There can be little doubt that, as far as they thought of the matter at all, Marx and Engels were personally homo-phobicas shown by an acerbic exchange of letter on Jean-Baptiste von Schweitzer, a German socialist rival.
Schweitzer had been arrested in a park on a morals charge and not only did Marx and Engels refuse to join a committee defending him, they resorted to the cheapest form of bathroom humor in their private comments about the affair.
The "Reddit closeted homosexual rights" Party of Germanyduring the Weimar Republicjoined with the Social Democrats in support of efforts to legalize private homosexual relations between consenting adults. In the early Soviet Union the Communist Party abolished all oppressive Czarist laws in related to sexuality. In the Soviet government also decriminalised homosexuality, and the subsequent Soviet criminal code in the s did not criminalize non-commercial same-sex sexuality between consenting adults in private.
It also provided for no-fault divorce and legalized abortion. Official Soviet policy on homosexuality in the s also fluctuated: InJoseph Stalin added Article to the entire Soviet Union criminal code, which made male homosexuality a crime punishable by up to five years in prison with hard labor.
The precise reason for Article Reddit closeted homosexual rights in some dispute among historians. The few official government statements made about the law tended to confuse homosexuality with pedophilia and was tied up with a belief that homosexuality was practiced only among fascists or the aristocracy.
The law remained intact until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; it was repealed in According to RTthe law against homosexuality led to "several hundred people [being] charged with it every year" and it "was also a convenient tool for smears and was tacked onto spying allegations during the NKVD purges".
Gay men were sometimes denied membership or expelled from communist parties  across the globe during the 20th Century, as most communist parties followed the social precedents set by the USSR. However, this was not the case
Reddit closeted homosexual rights the West. Reddit closeted homosexual rights phrase sexual Bolshevism originated in Weimar Germany in the s by Pastor Ludwig Hoppe of Berlin as a more general term of approbation at licentiousness.
In the early s western communist party leaders propagated the view that the increase in homosexuality and the open discussion of homosexuality were caused by capitalism "in its death throes". In their view, homosexuality would vanish. After Hitler's seizure of power Reddit closeted homosexual rights MachtergreifungMarxist intellectuals correlated fascism with homosexuality.
The advance of doctors, psychologists and social workers into the arena of human sexuality during the Weimar era as well as the feminist movement threw up a variety of conspiracy theoriesespecially amongst more conservative aspects of society, regarding communism and homosexuality.
Any form of sexual revolution was derided as promiscuity and leading to a rise in sexually transmitted infections. The response of those who opposed "sexual Bolshevism" was to promote eugenics and family values. There are specific events which glbtq.
For example, inWhittaker Chambersan editor and writer at Time magazine and a former Communist Party member and courier in a Soviet spy ring infiltrating the American government, accused Alger Hisshead of the Carnegie Endowmentof perjury and, implicitly, of Soviet espionage. The vast media coverage of the scandal hinted that Chambers had a crush on Hiss, establishing a link between Communism and Chambers was only too eager to strengthen this link, declaring to the FBI that his homosexual activities had stopped once he had left the Communist Party.
In addition, the flight to the Soviet Union of gay British spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean also helped fuel the association of homosexuality and treason in the public imagination. During the height of the McCarthy era in the late s and early sAmerican senator Joseph McCarthy associated homosexuality and communism as "threats to the "American way of life.
George Chauncey noted that, "The specter of the invisible homosexual, like that of the invisible communist, haunted Cold War America," and homosexuality and homosexuals were constantly referred to not only as a disease, but also as an invasion, like the perceived danger of communism. McCarthy often used accusations of homosexuality as a Reddit closeted homosexual rights tactic in his anti-communist crusadeoften combining the Second Red Scare with the lavender scare.
On one occasion, he went so far as to announce to reporters, "If you want to be against McCarthy, boys, you've got to be either a Communist or a cocksucker.
Senator Kenneth Wherry similarly attempted to invoke a connection between homosexuality and anti-nationalism. He said in an interview with Max Lerner that "You can't hardly separate homosexuals from subversives. I say, let's get these fellows [closeted gay men in government positions] out of the government. Connections between gay rights groups and radical leftists were not merely a figment of the imaginations of demagogues. The Mattachine Societyone of the earliest gay rights groups in the United States, was founded by Harry Haya former member of the Communist Party USA, who was kicked out of the gay rights group he'd founded for his ties to the party.
Famous ex-communist former Soviet agent Whittaker Chambers notably spent his time in the left-wing underground pursuing both homosexual and heterosexual affairs, but he kept his liaisons quiet since his communist associates despised homosexuality. Since the mids some parties in the Western world have begun to adopt homosexual rights as part of their platform.
The Communist Party of Greece, like the Communist Party of the Russian Federationhave rejected this move and continue to focus exclusively on worker politics. The Revolutionary Communist Party USA 's policy that "struggle will be waged to eliminate [homosexuality] and reform homosexuals" was "abandoned" in The League for the Revolutionary Partya communist party based in New York Cityissued a statement shortly after the passage of California's Proposition 8 condemning the amendment; reaffirming their support for same-sex marriage and expressing their views on how gay liberation is essential to the communist philosophy.
The New People's Armya communist insurgency within the Philippines has also made several statements supporting equal rights of same-sex couples and gay individuals; performing the first same-sex marriage in the country and officially endorsing such legislation if they were to come to power.
They also went farther to express their support for same-sex relationships,  and gay and lesbians were allowed to serve in their forces before the entire
Reddit closeted homosexual rights. In recent elections held in at Jawaharlal Nehru Universitythe student's wing of CPI M nominated a gay person as its candidate for key position in Reddit closeted homosexual rights central panel. The accounts of gay party members show that homosexuality was widely seen as incompatible with a working-class identity during this era,  despite Mark Ashton founder of Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners being General Secretary of the Young
Reddit closeted homosexual rights League  the youth wing of the CPGB  "without compromising the politics of their sexuality".
The Hoxhaist regime in Albania penalized same-sex sexual intercourse with long prison terms, bullying and ostracism. The word "pederasty" was used as a code word for sex between two consenting adults or sex between an adult and a child of any gender. Same-sex sexual intercourse was always legal in the People's Republic of Benin.
The People's Republic of Benin adopted a amendment to the Penal Code of under the Republic of Dahomey that fixed a general age limit of 13 for sex with a child of either gender, but penalized any act that is indecent or against nature if committed with Reddit closeted homosexual rights person of the same sex under The People's Republic of Bulgaria retained the penal code of the Kingdom of Bulgariathat criminalized male same-sex sexual intercourse over 16 years of age with at least 6 months of imprisonment.
The Penal Code of 13 March increased the penalty to up to 3 years in jail. Same-sex sexual intercourse was always legal in the People's Republic of the Congo.
Inthe Czechoslovak Socialist Republic decriminalized same-sex sexual intercourse after scientific research of Kurt Freund led to the conclusion that homosexual orientation may not be changed. In the Soviet occupation zone of Germanythe development of law was not uniform. The Provincial High Court in Halle Oberlandesgericht Halleor OLG Halle decided for Saxony-Anhalt in that Paragraphs and a were to be seen as injustice perpetrated by the Nazis, because a Reddit closeted homosexual rights juridical development had been broken off and even been reversed.
Homosexual acts were to be tried only according to the laws of the Weimar Republic. Inone year after being reconstituted as the German Democratic Republicthe Berlin Appeal Court Kammergericht Berlin decided for all of East Germany
Reddit closeted homosexual rights reinstate the validity of the old, pre form of Paragraph However, in contrast to the earlier action of the OLG Hallethe new Paragraph a remained unchanged, because it was said to protect society against "socially harmful homosexual acts of qualified character".
From tofollowing Uprising of in East Germanythe GDR government instituted a program of "moral reform" to build a solid foundation for the new socialist republicin which masculinity and the traditional family were championed while homosexuality, seen to contravene "healthy mores of the working people", continued to be prosecuted under Paragraph Same-sex sexual intercourse was "alternatively viewed as a remnant of bourgeois decadence, a sign of moral weakness, and a threat to the social and political health of the nation.
In the same court "Reddit closeted homosexual rights" that Paragraph a in contrast to Paragraph did not presuppose acts tantamount to sexual intercourse. Lewdness Unzucht was defined as any act that is performed to arouse sexual excitement and "violates the moral sentiment of our workers.
This removed Paragraph from the effective body of the law, because at the same time the East Berlin Court of Appeal Kammergericht decided that all punishments deriving from the old form of Paragraph should be suspended due to the insignificance of the acts to which it had been applied.
On this basis, homosexual acts between consenting adults ceased to be punished, beginning in the late s. Gay social clubs and groups were allowed to organize themselves freely, so long as they Reddit closeted homosexual rights tenuous links with Protestant Churches.
This was because the official position of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany party was to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, but to otherwise ignore that LGBT relationships existed. On July 1,the GDR adopted its own code of criminal law. This law applied not Reddit closeted homosexual rights to men who have sex with boys but equally to women who have sex with girls.
According to historian Heidi Minning, attempts by lesbians and gay men in East Germany to establish a visible community were "thwarted at every turn by the G. Police force was used on numerous occasions to break up or prevent public Reddit closeted homosexual rights and lesbian events. Centralized censorship prevented the presentation of homosexuality in print and electronic media, as well as the import of such materials. In the late s, the East German government opened a state-owned gay disco in Berlin.
Inthe age of consent was equalized for same-sex intercourse in East Germany. On August 11, the Supreme Court of the GDR struck down a conviction under Paragraph on the basis that "homosexuality, just "Reddit closeted homosexual rights" heterosexuality, represents a variant of sexual behavior.
Homosexual people do therefore not stand outside socialist society, and the civil rights are warranted to them exactly as to all other citizens.
The act passed into law May 30, This removed all specific reference to homosexuality from East German criminal law. Inthe German film titled Coming Out directed by Heiner Carow was exhibited on the night that the Berlin wall came down, and tells a story of an East German man coming to accept his own homosexuality, with much of it shot in the local gay bars.
The Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia and People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia adopted the previous Penal Code of of the Ethiopian Empirewhich criminalizes anyone who "performs with another person of the same sex an act corresponding to the sexual act, or any other indecent act, is punishable with simple imprisonment.
The Hungarian People's Republic adopted the penal code of the Kingdom of Hungary punished male
Reddit closeted homosexual rights sexual intercourse with prison up to 1 year. Inmale same-sex sexual intercourse above the age of 20 was decriminalized. Ina new penal code lowered the age of consent to the age of 18 years old. Insame-sex sexual intercourse was criminalized in the Mongolian People's Republic.
While the government proclaims tolerance for gay people and has stated its belief that homosexuality is not a choice and rather due to genetic factorsit rejects the alleged "promiscuity and classism" of gay culture in the West. Same-sex sexual intercourse was always legal during the existence of the Republic of Poland and the Polish People's Republic.
However the government used homosexuality to "Reddit closeted homosexual rights" homosexuals the police harassed gay men and lesbians.
The Romanian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic Reddit closeted homosexual rights Romania adopted the Romanian Penal Code of from the Kingdom of Romaniawhich banned public "acts of sexual inversion committed between men or between women, if provoking public scandal". Inthis "public" homosexuality was considerate by court, that it include all situations whatever public or private if "provoking scandal", thus homosexuality became de facto illegal. In the new Penal Code of the Romanian People's Republicold Article toughens penalties to a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 5 years.
Under Article of the Somali Penal Code introduced insexual intercourse with a person of the same sex is punishable by imprisonment from three months to three years in the Somali Democratic Republic.