Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. For those researchers working in the field of human history, the chronology of events remains a major element of reflection.
Archaeologists have access to various techniques for dating archaeological sites or the objects found on those sites. There are two main categories of dating methods in archaeology: Relative dating includes methods that rely on the analysis of comparative data or the context eg, geological, regional, cultural in which the object one wishes to date is found. This approach helps to order events chronologically but it does not provide the absolute age of an object expressed in years.
Relative dating includes different techniques, but the most commonly used are soil stratigraphy analysis and typology. On the other hand, absolute dating includes all methods that provide figures about the real estimated age of archaeological objects or occupations. These methods usually analyze physicochemical transformation phenomena whose rate are known or can be estimated relatively well.
This is the only of techniques that can help clarifying the actual age of an object.
Absolute dating methods mainly include radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and thermoluminescence. Stratigraphy Inspired
Dating techniques for pottery geologystratigraphy uses the principle of the superposition of strata which suggests that, in a succession of undisturbed SOILSthe upper horizons are newer than the lower ones.
Generally, each stratum is isolated in a separate chronological unit that incorporates artifacts. this method is sometimes limited because the reoccupation of an area may require excavation to establish the foundation of a building, for instance, that goes through older layers.
In this case, even if the foundation of the building is found in the same stratigraphic level as the previous occupation, the two events are not contemporary.
Stratigraphic dating remains very reliable when it comes to dating objects or events in undisturbed stratigraphic levels. For example, the oldest human remains known to date in Canada, found at Gore Creekhave been dated using soil stratification.
The bones were buried under and are therefore older a layer of ash that resulted from a volcanic eruption dating back to years BP Before Present; "present" indicates c.
Subsequently, radiocarbon dating, an absolute dating technique, was used to date the bones directly and provided Dating techniques for pottery date of BP, showing how useful the combined used of relative and absolute dating can be.
Moreover, stratigraphic dating is sometimes based on the objects that are found within the soil strata. Indeed, some items whose exact or approximate age is known are called "diagnostic artifacts.
Their presence on archaeological sites is used to date soil layers and the objects and events they are associated with and thus contributes to refine the chronology of sites. Typology Typology is a method that compares reference objects in order to classify them according to their similarity or dissimilarity and link them to a specific context or period. This technique is frequently used when it is impossible to make use of absolute dating methods; it generally allows archaeologists to identify the period to which a cultural site or object belongs, without specifying the date of occupation.
This method is primarily applied to projectile points and ceramic vessels. These present many characteristics that are used for comparing them, such as morphology and raw materials in the case of stone tools, and decorative techniques and motifs in the case of ceramics.